Omniscience and the Rhetoric of Reason - Table of Contents

Śāntarakṣita and Kamalaśīla on Rationality, Argumentation, and Religious Authority


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1. Introduction       
The Rhetoric of Reason       
Reason, Rhetoric, and Omniscience            
Buddhist Philosophia           
The Contours of Omniscience in India      
Omniscience in the Pāli Texts and the Theravāda Tradition      
- Mahāsāṃghika and Sarvāstivāda Perspectives on Omniscience            
- Mahāyāna Developments in Theories of the Buddha’s  Omniscience   
- Models of Omniscience in the Tattvasaṃgraha and the Pañjikā            
Omniscience and Religious authority        
The Path Ahead       

2. The Rhetorical Complexity of the Texts       
- The Actual Intended Audience       
- The Ideal Audience  
Styles of Reasoning and Argumentation    
- Arguments ad personam and Arguments ad hominem   
- Nyāya Reasoning      
- Pramāṇa Theory      
- The Sliding Scale of analysis          
- Scholastic Reasoning: Negotiating Tradition and Innovation      
Structure of the Tattvasaṃgraha and the Pañjikā           
- Analysis of Dependent arising        
- Analysis of Religious authority       
Purposes of the Tattvasaṃgraha and the Pañjikā           
- Kamalaśīla’s Presentation of the Purpose            
- Kamalaśīla’s analysis of the Purpose           

3. Dogmas, Connotations, and Contexts            
Dogmas of Omniscience and Buddhahood           
- The Requirement of Great Compassion    
- The Perfection of the aims of Self and Other       
- The Two Obscurations        
- Summary      
- A
ssessing Dharmakīrti’s Position on Total Omniscience  
- The Tattvasaṃgraha and the Pañjikā on Dharmic and Total Omniscience    
- The Shifting nature of the Objects of Knowledge            
Rhetorical Contexts  
- A Strictly Rhetorical Context           
- Two Rhetorical Contexts with Specific addressees          
The Final Chapter of the Tattvasaṃgraha and the Pañjikā        
- Audience and Styles of Reasoning in the Final Chapter  
- Structure of the Final Chapter (1): Pūrvapakṣa  
- Structure of the Final Chapter (2): Uttarapakṣa  
- Details of the Structure of the Uttarapakṣa          
- Relations among the Four arguments       
The “Investigation of External Objects”

4. Omniscience Is Possible: The General Demonstration     
Rebutting Kumārila’s Refutation of Omniscience
- Refuting that Dharma Is Radically Inaccessible   
- Refuting that any Pramāṇa Can Disprove Omniscience  
- Perception Cannot Refute Omniscience    
   - Inference Cannot Refute Omniscience      
   - The Other Pramāṇas Cannot Refute Omniscience           
   - The Nonperception of an Omniscient Being Is not Certain
Conclusion: It Is Best to Let There Be Doubt        
Demonstrating that Omniscience Is Possible        
- Inference of Capacity: Kāryānumāna and Saṃbhavatpramāṇa
- Ignorance as the Vision of a Self    
- The Antidote to Ignorance: The Vision of Selflessness     
- The Vision of Selflessness as Yogic Perception     
- Response to Objections Concerning the antidote 
- The Perfectibility of the Vision of Selflessness     
- The Nature of the Mind: Luminous and Seeing Reality   
- Conclusion: The Perfection of Wisdom Is Possible           
Demonstrating Total Omniscience 
- The Logic of Perfectibility   
- Omniscience as Knowing the Selflessness that Pervades all Things      
- The Apoha Theory and Yogic Perception  
- An Equivocation in the Term All Dharmas?          
- Conclusion: Omniscience as Reflexive Awareness

5. Omniscience Is Actual: The Specific Demonstration         
The Subject of the Debate: Supersensible Seeing
- The Buddha as a Knower of the Hidden Capacities of Mantras 
- The Sādhya Is Supersensible Seeing on Mīmāṃsaka Terms
Overview of the Specific Demonstration               
- The Status of Verbal Testimony     
A Tension in the Specific Demonstration  
- Dharmakīrti on Inferring Mental Qualities           
- Śāntarakṣita and Kamalaśīla on Inferring Mental Qualities       
- The Term Śṛṅgagrāhikayā in the Pañjikā
- Acknowledging that the Buddha May not Have Been First         
- The Specific Demonstration as a Corollary of the General          
- Who Can Infer the Buddha’s Omniscience?         
- Reconciling the Two Interpretations         
Supplemental arguments in the Demonstration  
- The Buddha’s Omniscience Is attested in the Veda         
- The Buddha’s Compassion as a Mark of His Superiority

6. Motives for the Two Demonstrations           
Motives for the General Demonstration    
- Trustworthy awareness as a Justification of action         
- Doubt as a Justification for action  
- Faith and Judicious Persons           
- Summation: Motives for the General Demonstration      
Motives for the Specific Demonstration    
- First Hypothesis: Causing Judicious Persons to Go for Refuge
- Second Hypothesis: Grounding Buddhist Scriptures       
   - The Circular Approach        
   - The Linear Approach           
   - The Problem with the Linear Approach    
   - The Presentation of Scripturally Based Inference           
   - The Provisional Nature of Scripturally Based Inference
   - Some Explicit Statements on the Motive Behind the Proof         
   - Faith in Radically Inaccessible Entities      
   - Scripturally Based Inference as a Rhetorical Tool            
   - Summation of Findings Concerning the Second Hypothesis       
- Third Hypothesis: Writing for non-Buddhists      
- Résumé of the Three Hypotheses  
Motives for the Demonstration of Total Omniscience      

7. Spontaneous Omniscience and the Perfection of Reason 
Spontaneous Omniscience  
The Perfection of Reason?  

Primary Sources       
Secondary Sources   

Index of Translated Passages         
General Index           
About the Author