The Numerical Discourses of the Buddha - Selections

IV. Upāli

31 (1) Upāli
Then the Venerable Upāli approached the Blessed One, paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and said to him:
   “Bhante, on how many grounds has the Tathāgata prescribed the training rules for his disciples and recited the Pātimokkha?”
   “It is, Upāli, on ten grounds that the Tathāgata has prescribed the training rules for his disciples and recited the Pātimokkha. What ten? (1) For the well-being of the Saṅgha; (2) for the ease of the Saṅgha; (3) for keeping recalcitrant persons in check; (4) so that well-behaved bhikkhus can dwell at ease; (5) for the restraint of taints pertaining to this present life; (6) for the dispelling of taints pertaining to future lives; (7) so that those without confidence might gain confidence; and (8) for increasing [the confidence] of those with confidence; (9) for the continuation of the good Dhamma; and (10) for promoting discipline.
   “It is on these ten grounds that the Tathāgata has prescribed the training rules for his disciples and recited the Pātimokkha.”

32 (2) Suspending
“Bhante, how many reasons are there for suspending the Pātimokkha?”
   “There are, Upāli, ten reasons for suspending the Pātimokkha. What ten? (1) One who has committed a pārājika is sitting in that assembly; (2) a discussion about one who has committed a pārājika is underway; (3) one not fully ordained is sitting in that assembly; [71] (4) a discussion about one not fully ordained is underway; (5) one who has given up the training is sitting in that assembly; (6) a discussion about one who has given up the training is underway; (7) a eunuch is sitting in that assembly; (8) a discussion about a eunuch is underway; (9) a seducer of a bhikkhunī is sitting in that assembly; (10) a discussion about a seducer of a bhikkhunī is underway. These are the ten reasons for suspending the Pātimokkha.”

33 (3) Adjudication
“Bhante, how many qualities should a bhikkhu possess to be agreed upon to adjudicate [in a disciplinary issue]?”
   “A bhikkhu who possesses ten qualities, Upāli, may be agreed upon to adjudicate [in a disciplinary issue]. What ten? (1) Here, a bhikkhu is virtuous; he dwells restrained by the Pātimokkha, possessed of good conduct and resort, seeing danger in minute faults. Having undertaken the training rules, he trains in them. (2) He has learnt much, remembers what he has learnt, and accumulates what he has learnt. Those teachings that are good in the beginning, good in the middle, and good in the end, with the right meaning and phrasing, which proclaim the perfectly complete and pure spiritual life—such teachings as these he has learnt much of, retained in mind, recited verbally, investigated mentally, and penetrated well by view. (3) Both Pātimokkhas have been well transmitted to him in detail, well analyzed, well mastered, well determined in terms of the rules and their detailed explication. (4) He is firm in the discipline, immovable. (5) He is able to convince those on both sides of the issue, to describe matters to them, to persuade them, to demonstrate to them, and to placate them. (6) He is skilled in the origination and [72] settlement of disciplinary issues. (7) He knows what a disciplinary issue is. (8) He knows the origin of a disciplinary issue. (9) He knows the cessation of a disciplinary issue. (10) He knows the way leading to the cessation of a disciplinary issue. A bhikkhu who possesses these ten qualities may be agreed upon to adjudicate [in a disciplinary issue].”

34 (4) Full Ordination
“Bhante, how many qualities should a bhikkhu possess to give full ordination?”
   “A bhikkhu who possesses ten qualities, Upāli, may give full ordination. What ten? (1) Here, a bhikkhu is virtuous … he trains in them. (2) He has learnt much … and penetrated well by view. (3) Both Pātimokkhas have been well transmitted to him in detail, well analyzed, well mastered, well determined in terms of the rules and their detailed explication. (4) He is able to look after a patient or to get someone else to look after him. (5) He is able to eliminate one’s dissatisfaction or to get someone else to eliminate it. (6) He is able to use the Dhamma to dispel regrets that might arise [in his pupils]. (7) He is able to dissuade them, by way of the Dhamma, from erroneous views that have arisen. (8) He is able to encourage them in the higher virtuous behavior. (9) He is able to encourage them in the higher mind. (10) He is able to encourage them in the higher wisdom. A bhikkhu who possesses these ten qualities may give full ordination.” [73]

35 (5) Dependence
“Bhante, how many qualities should a bhikkhu possess to give dependence?”
   “A bhikkhu who possesses ten qualities, Upāli, may give dependence. What ten?” …
   [The same ten qualities as in the preceding sutta.] …
   “A bhikkhu who possesses these ten qualities may give dependence.”

36 (6) Novice
“Bhante, how many qualities should a bhikkhu possess to be attended upon by a novice?”
   “A bhikkhu who possesses ten qualities, Upāli, may be attended upon by a novice. What ten?” …
   [The same ten qualities as in 10:34.] …
   “A bhikkhu who possesses these ten qualities may be attended upon by a novice.”

37 (7) Schism (1)
“Bhante, it is said: ‘Schism in the Saṅgha, schism in the Saṅgha.’ How, bhante, is there schism in the Saṅgha?”
   “Here, Upāli, (1) bhikkhus explain non-Dhamma as Dhamma, (2) and Dhamma as non-Dhamma. (3) They explain non-discipline as discipline, [74] and (4) discipline as non-discipline. (5) They explain what has not been stated and uttered by the Tathāgata as having been stated and uttered by him, and (6) what has been stated and uttered by the Tathāgata as not having been stated and uttered by him. (7) They explain what has not been practiced by the Tathāgata as having been practiced by him, and (8) what has been practiced by the Tathāgata as not having been practiced by him. (9) They explain what has not been prescribed by the Tathāgata as having been prescribed by him, and (10) what has been prescribed by the Tathāgata as not having been prescribed by him. On these ten grounds they withdraw and go apart. They perform legal acts separately and recite the Pātimokkha separately. It is in this way, Upāli, that there is schism in the Saṅgha.”

38 (8) Schism (2)
“Bhante, it is said: ‘Concord in the Saṅgha, concord in the Saṅgha.’ How is there concord in the Saṅgha?”
   “Here, Upāli, (1) bhikkhus explain non-Dhamma as non-Dhamma, and (2) Dhamma as Dhamma. (3) They explain non-discipline as non-discipline, and (4) discipline as discipline. (5) They explain what has not been stated and uttered by the Tathāgata as not having been stated and uttered by him, and (6) what has been stated and uttered by the Tathāgata as having been stated and uttered by him. (7) They explain what has not been practiced by the Tathāgata as not having been practiced by him, and (8) what has been practiced by the Tathāgata as having been practiced by him. (9) They explain what has not been prescribed by the Tathāgata as not having been prescribed by him, and (10) what has been prescribed by the Tathāgata as having been prescribed by him. On these ten grounds, they do not withdraw and go apart. They do not perform legal acts separately or recite the Pātimokkha separately. It is in this way, Upāli, that there is concord in the Saṅgha.” [75]

39 (9) Ānanda (1)
Then the Venerable Ānanda approached the Blessed One, paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and said to him:
   “Bhante, it is said: ‘Schism in the Saṅgha, schism in the Saṅgha.’ How is there schism in the Saṅgha?”
   “Here, Ānanda, (1) bhikkhus explain non-Dhamma as Dhamma … [as in 10:37] … and (10) what has been prescribed by the Tathāgata as not having been prescribed by him. On these ten grounds they withdraw and go apart. They perform legal acts separately and recite the Pātimokkha separately. It is in this way, Ānanda, that there is schism in the Saṅgha.”
   “But, bhante, when one causes schism in a harmonious Saṅgha, what does one generate?”
   “One generates evil lasting for an eon, Ānanda.”
   “But, bhante, what is that evil lasting for an eon?”
   “One is tormented in hell for an eon, Ānanda.” [76]

One who causes schism in the Saṅgha is bound for misery,
bound for hell, to abide there for an eon.
Delighting in factions, established in non-Dhamma,
he falls away from security from bondage.
Having caused schism in a harmonious Saṅgha,
he is tormented in hell for an eon.

40 (10) Ānanda (2)
“Bhante, it is said: ‘Concord in the Saṅgha, concord in the Saṅgha.’ How is there concord in the Saṅgha?”
   “Here, Ānanda, (1) bhikkhus explain non-Dhamma as non-Dhamma … [as in 10:38] … and (10) what has been prescribed by the Tathāgata as having been prescribed by him. On these ten grounds they do not withdraw and go apart. They do not perform legal acts separately or recite the Pātimokkha separately. It is in this way, Ānanda, that there is concord in the Saṅgha.”
   “But, bhante, when one reconciles a divided Saṅgha, what does one generate?”
   “One generates divine merit, Ānanda.”
   “But, bhante, what is divine merit?”
   “One rejoices in heaven for an eon, Ānanda.” [77]

Pleasant is concord in the Saṅgha,
and the mutual help of those who live in concord.
Delighting in concord, established in Dhamma,
one does not fall away from security from bondage.
Having brought concord to the Saṅgha,
one rejoices in heaven for an eon.

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© Bhikkhu Bodhi, The Numerical Discourses of the Buddha (Wisdom Publications, 2012)

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