Classic and Contemporary Buddhist Works

The Numerical Discourses of the Buddha - Selections

III. Five-Factored

21 (1) Irreverent (1)
“(1) Bhikkhus, when a bhikkhu is irreverent and undeferential, and his behavior is uncongenial to his fellow monks, it is impossible for him to fulfill the factor of proper conduct. [15] (2) Without fulfilling the factor of proper conduct, it is impossible for him to fulfill the factor of a trainee. (3) Without fulfilling the factor of a trainee, it is impossible for him to fulfill virtuous behavior. (4) Without fulfilling virtuous behavior, it is impossible for him to fulfill right view. (5) Without fulfilling right view, it is impossible for him to fulfill right concentration.
    “(1) But, bhikkhus, when a bhikkhu is reverential and deferential, and his behavior is congenial to his fellow monks, it is possible for him to fulfill the duty of proper conduct. (2) Having fulfilled the duty of proper conduct, it is possible for him to fulfill the duty of a trainee. (3) Having fulfilled the duty of a trainee, it is possible for him to fulfill virtuous behavior. (4) Having fulfilled virtuous behavior, it is possible for him to fulfill right view. (5) Having fulfilled right view, it is possible for him to fulfill right concentration.”

22 (2) Irreverent (2)
“(1) Bhikkhus, when a bhikkhu is irreverent and undeferential, and his behavior is uncongenial to his fellow monks, it is impossible for him to fulfill the factor of proper conduct. (2) Without fulfilling the factor of proper conduct, it is impossible for him to fulfill the factor of a trainee. (3) Without fulfilling the factor of a trainee, it is impossible for him to fulfill the aggregate of virtuous behavior. (4) Without fulfilling the aggregate of virtuous behavior, it is impossible for him to fulfill the aggregate of concentration. (5) Without fulfilling the aggregate of concentration, it is impossible for him to fulfill the aggregate of wisdom.
    “(1) But, bhikkhus, when a bhikkhu is reverential and deferential, and his behavior is congenial to his fellow monks, it is possible for him to fulfill the factor of proper conduct. (2) Having fulfilled the factor of proper conduct, it is possible for him to fulfill the factor of a trainee. (3) Having fulfilled the factor of a trainee, it is possible for him to fulfill the aggregate of virtuous behavior. (4) Having fulfilled the aggregate of virtuous behavior, it is possible for him to fulfill the aggregate of concentration. [16] (5) Having fulfilled the aggregate of concentration, it is possible for him to fulfill the aggregate of wisdom.”

23 (3) Defilements
“Bhikkhus, there are these five defilements of gold, defiled by which gold is not malleable, wieldy, and luminous, but brittle and not properly fit for work. What five? Iron, copper, tin, lead, and silver. These are the five defilements of gold, defiled by which gold is not malleable, wieldy, and luminous, but brittle and not properly fit for work. But when gold is freed from these five defilements, it is malleable, wieldy, and luminous, pliant and properly fit for work. Then whatever kind of ornament one wishes to make from it—whether a bracelet, earrings, a necklace, or a golden garland—one can achieve one’s purpose.
    “So too, bhikkhus, there are these five defilements of the mind, defiled by which the mind is not malleable, wieldy, and luminous, but brittle and not properly concentrated for the destruction of the taints. What five? Sensual desire, ill will, dullness and drowsiness, restlessness and remorse, and doubt. These are the five defilements of the mind, defiled by which the mind is not malleable, wieldy, and luminous, but brittle and not properly concentrated for the destruction of the taints. But when the mind is freed from these five defilements, it becomes malleable, wieldy, [17] and luminous, pliant and properly concentrated for the destruction of the taints. Then, there being a suitable basis, one is capable of realizing any state realizable by direct knowledge toward which one might incline the mind.
    “If one wishes: ‘May I wield the various kinds of psychic potency: having been one, may I become many; having been many, may I become one; may I appear and vanish; may I go unhindered through a wall, through a rampart, through a mountain as though through space; may I dive in and out of the earth as though it were water; may I walk on water without sinking as though it were earth; seated cross-legged, may I travel in space like a bird; with my hand may I touch and stroke the moon and sun so powerful and mighty; may I exercise mastery with the body as far as the brahmā world,’ one is capable of realizing it, there being a suitable basis.
    “If one wishes: ‘May I, with the divine ear element, which is purified and surpasses the human, hear both kinds of sounds, the divine and human, those that are far as well as near,’ one is capable of realizing it, there being a suitable basis.
    “If one wishes: ‘May I understand the minds of other beings and persons, having encompassed them with my own mind. May I understand a mind with lust as a mind with lust, and a mind without lust as a mind without lust; [18] a mind with hatred as a mind with hatred, and a mind without hatred as a mind without hatred; a mind with delusion as a mind with delusion, and a mind without delusion as a mind without delusion; a contracted mind as contracted and a distracted mind as distracted; an exalted mind as exalted and an unexalted mind as unexalted; a surpassable mind as surpassable and an unsurpassable mind as unsurpassable; a concentrated mind as concentrated and an unconcentrated mind as unconcentrated; a liberated mind as liberated and an unliberated mind as unliberated,’ one is capable of realizing it, there being a suitable basis.
    “If one wishes: ‘May I recollect my manifold past abodes, that is, one birth, two births, three births, four births, five births, ten births, twenty births, thirty births, forty births, fifty births, a hundred births, a thousand births, a hundred thousand births, many eons of world-dissolution, many eons of world-evolution, many eons of world-dissolution and world-evolution thus: “There I was so named, of such a clan, with such an appearance, such was my food, such my experience of pleasure and pain, such my life span; passing away from there, I was reborn elsewhere, and there too I was so named, of such a clan, with such an appearance, such was my food, such my experience of pleasure and pain, such my life span; passing away from there, I was reborn here”— may I thus recollect my manifold past abodes with their aspects and details,’ one is capable of realizing it, there being a suitable basis. [19]
    “If one wishes: ‘May I, with the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, see beings passing away and being reborn, inferior and superior, beautiful and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate, and understand how beings fare on in accordance with their kamma thus: “These beings who engaged in misconduct by body, speech, and mind, who reviled the noble ones, held wrong view, and undertook kamma based on wrong view, with the breakup of the body, after death, have been reborn in the plane of misery, in a bad destination, in the lower world, in hell; but these beings who engaged in good conduct by body, speech, and mind, who did not revile the noble ones, who held right view, and undertook kamma based on right view, with the breakup of the body, after death, have been reborn in a good destination, in a heavenly world”—thus with the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, may I see beings passing away and being reborn, inferior and superior, beautiful and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate, and understand how beings fare on in accordance with their kamma,’ one is capable of realizing it, there being a suitable basis.
    “If one wishes: ‘May I, with the destruction of the taints, in this very life realize for myself with direct knowledge the taintless liberation of mind, liberation by wisdom; and having entered upon it, may I dwell in it,’ one is capable of realizing it, there being a suitable basis.”

24 (4) Immoral
“Bhikkhus, (1) for an immoral person, for one deficient in virtuous behavior, (2) right concentration lacks its proximate cause. When there is no right concentration, for one deficient in right concentration, (3) the knowledge and vision of things as they really are lacks its proximate cause. When there is no knowledge and vision of things as they really are, for one deficient in the knowledge and vision of things as they really are, (4) disenchantment and dispassion lack their proximate cause. When there is no disenchantment and dispassion, for one deficient in disenchantment and dispassion, (5) the knowledge and vision of liberation lacks its proximate cause.
    “Suppose there is a tree deficient in branches and foliage. Then its shoots do not grow to fullness; also its bark, [20] softwood, and heartwood do not grow to fullness. So too, for an immoral person, one deficient in virtuous behavior, right concentration lacks its proximate cause. When there is no right concentration … the knowledge and vision of liberation lacks its proximate cause.
    “Bhikkhus, (1) for a virtuous person, for one whose behavior is virtuous, (2) right concentration possesses its proximate cause. When there is right concentration, for one possessing right concentration, (3) the knowledge and vision of things as they really are possesses its proximate cause. When there is the knowledge and vision of things as they really are, for one possessing the knowledge and vision of things as they really are, (4) disenchantment and dispassion possess their proximate cause. When there is disenchantment and dispassion, for one possessing disenchantment and dispassion, (5) the knowledge and vision of liberation possesses its proximate cause.
    “Suppose there is a tree possessing branches and foliage. Then its shoots grow to fullness; also its bark, softwood, and heartwood grow to fullness. So too, for a virtuous person, one whose behavior is virtuous, right concentration possesses its proximate cause. When there is right concentration … the knowledge and vision of liberation possesses its proximate cause.”

25 (5) Assisted
“Bhikkhus, when right view is assisted by five factors, it has liberation of mind as its fruit, liberation of mind as its fruit and benefit; it has liberation by wisdom as its fruit, liberation by wisdom as its fruit and benefit. What five? [21] Here, right view is assisted by virtuous behavior, learning, discussion, calm, and insight. When right view is assisted by these five factors, it has liberation of mind as its fruit, liberation of mind as its fruit and benefit; it has liberation by wisdom as its fruit, liberation by wisdom as its fruit and benefit.”

26 (6) Liberation
“Bhikkhus, there are these five bases of liberation by means of which, if a bhikkhu dwells heedful, ardent, and resolute, his unliberated mind is liberated, his undestroyed taints are utterly destroyed, and he reaches the as-yet-unreached unsurpassed security from bondage. What five?
    (1) “Here, bhikkhus, the Teacher or a fellow monk in the position of a teacher teaches the Dhamma to a bhikkhu. In whatever way the Teacher or that fellow monk in the position of a teacher teaches the Dhamma to the bhikkhu, in just that way he experiences inspiration in the meaning and inspiration in the Dhamma. As he does so, joy arises in him. When he is joyful, rapture arises. For one with a rapturous mind, the body becomes tranquil. One tranquil in body feels pleasure. For one feeling pleasure, the mind becomes concentrated. This is the first basis of liberation, by means of which, if a bhikkhu dwells heedful, ardent, and resolute, his unliberated mind is liberated, his undestroyed taints are utterly destroyed, and he reaches the as-yet-unreached unsurpassed security from bondage.
    (2) “Again, neither the Teacher nor a fellow monk in the position of a teacher teaches the Dhamma to a bhikkhu; but he himself teaches the Dhamma to others in detail as he has heard it and learned it. In whatever way the bhikkhu [22] teaches the Dhamma to others in detail as he has heard it and learned it, in just that way, in relation to that Dhamma, he experiences inspiration in the meaning and inspiration in the Dhamma. As he does so, joy arises in him. When he is joyful, rapture arises. For one with a rapturous mind, the body becomes tranquil. One tranquil in body feels pleasure. For one feeling pleasure, the mind becomes concentrated. This is the second basis of liberation, by means of which, if a bhikkhu dwells heedful, ardent, and resolute, his unliberated mind is liberated, his undestroyed taints are utterly destroyed, and he reaches the as-yet-unreached unsurpassed security from bondage.
    (3) “Again, neither the Teacher nor a fellow monk in the position of a teacher teaches the Dhamma to a bhikkhu, nor does he himself teach the Dhamma to others in detail as he has heard it and learned it; but rather he recites the Dhamma in detail as he has heard it and learned it. In whatever way the bhikkhu recites the Dhamma in detail as he has heard it and learned it, in just that way, in relation to that Dhamma, he experiences inspiration in the meaning and inspiration in the Dhamma. As he does so, joy arises in him. When he is joyful, rapture arises. For one with a rapturous mind, the body becomes tranquil. One tranquil in body feels pleasure. For one feeling pleasure, the mind becomes concentrated. This is the third basis of liberation, by means of which, if a bhikkhu dwells heedful, ardent, and resolute, his unliberated mind is liberated, his undestroyed taints are utterly destroyed, and he reaches the as-yet-unreached unsurpassed security from bondage.
    (4) “Again, neither the Teacher nor a fellow monk in the position of a teacher teaches the Dhamma to a bhikkhu, nor does he teach the Dhamma to others in detail as he has heard it and learned it, nor does he recite the Dhamma in detail as he has heard it and learned it; but rather he ponders, [23] examines, and mentally inspects the Dhamma as he has heard it and learned it. In whatever way the bhikkhu ponders, examines, and mentally inspects the Dhamma as he has heard it and learned it, in just that way, in relation to that Dhamma, he experiences inspiration in the meaning and inspiration in the Dhamma. As he does so, joy arises in him. When he is joyful, rapture arises. For one with a rapturous mind, the body becomes tranquil. One tranquil in body feels pleasure. For one feeling pleasure, the mind becomes concentrated. This is the fourth basis of liberation, by means of which, if a bhikkhu dwells heedful, ardent, and resolute, his unliberated mind is liberated, his undestroyed taints are utterly destroyed, and he reaches the as-yet-unreached unsurpassed security from bondage.
    (5) “Again, neither the Teacher nor a fellow monk in the position of a teacher teaches the Dhamma to a bhikkhu, nor does he teach the Dhamma to others in detail as he has heard it and learned it, nor does he recite the Dhamma in detail as he has heard it and learned it, nor does he ponder, examine, and mentally inspect the Dhamma as he has heard it and learned it; but rather he has grasped well a certain object of concentration, attended to it well, sustained it well, and penetrated it well with wisdom. In whatever way the bhikkhu has grasped well a certain object of concentration, attended to it well, sustained it well, and penetrated it well with wisdom, in just that way, in relation to that Dhamma, he experiences inspiration in the meaning and inspiration in the Dhamma. As he does so, joy arises in him. When he is joyful, rapture arises. For one with a rapturous mind, the body becomes tranquil. One tranquil in body feels pleasure. For one feeling pleasure, the mind becomes concentrated. This is the fifth basis of liberation, by means of which, if a bhikkhu dwells heedful, ardent, and resolute, [24] his unliberated mind is liberated, his undestroyed taints are utterly destroyed, and he reaches the as-yet-unreached unsurpassed security from bondage.
    “These, bhikkhus, are the five bases of liberation, by means of which, if a bhikkhu dwells heedful, ardent, and resolute, his unliberated mind is liberated, his undestroyed taints are utterly destroyed, and he reaches the as-yet-unreached unsurpassed security from bondage.”

27 (7) Concentration
“Bhikkhus, being alert and mindful, develop concentration that is measureless. When, alert and mindful, you develop concentration that is measureless, five kinds of knowledge arise that are personally yours. What five? (1) The knowledge arises that is personally yours: ‘This concentration is presently pleasant and in the future has a pleasant result.’ (2) The knowledge arises that is personally yours: ‘This concentration is noble and spiritual.’ (3) The knowledge arises that is personally yours: ‘This concentration is not practiced by low persons.’ (4) The knowledge arises that is personally yours: ‘This concentration is peaceful and sublime, gained by full tranquilization, and attained to unification; it is not reined in and checked by forcefully suppressing [the defilements].’ (5) The knowledge arises that is personally yours: ‘I enter this concentration mindfully and I emerge from it mindfully.’ Bhikkhus, being alert and continuously mindful, develop concentration that is measureless. When you are alert and mindful, developing concentration that is measureless, these five kinds of knowledge arise that are personally yours.” [25]

28 (8) Five-Factored 
“Bhikkhus, I will teach you the development of noble five-factored right concentration. Listen and attend closely. I will speak.”
    “Yes, bhante,” those bhikkhus replied. The Blessed One said this:
    “And what, bhikkhus, is the development of noble five-factored right concentration?
    (1) “ Here, secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the first jhāna, which consists of rapture and pleasure born of seclusion, accompanied by thought and examination. He makes the rapture and happiness born of seclusion drench, steep, fill, and pervade this body, so that there is no part of his whole body that is not pervaded by the rapture and happiness born of seclusion. Just as a skillful bath man or a bath man’s apprentice might heap bath powder in a metal basin and, sprinkling it gradually with water, would knead it until the moisture wets his ball of bath powder, soaks it, and pervades it inside and out, yet the ball itself does not ooze; so too, the bhikkhu makes the rapture and happiness born of seclusion drench, steep, fill, and pervade this body, so that there is no part of his whole body that is not pervaded by the rapture and happiness born of seclusion. This is the first development of noble five-factored right concentration.
    (2) “Again, with the subsiding of thought and examination, a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the second jhāna, which has internal placidity and unification of mind and consists of rapture and pleasure born of concentration, without thought and examination. He makes the rapture and happiness born of concentration drench, steep, fill, and pervade this body, so that there is no part of his whole body that is not pervaded by the rapture and happiness born of concentration. Just as there might be a lake whose waters welled up from below with no inflow from east, west, north, [26] or south, and the lake would not be replenished from time to time by showers of rain, then the cool fount of water welling up in the lake would make the cool water drench, steep, fill, and pervade the lake, so that there would be no part of the whole lake that is not pervaded by cool water; so too, the bhikkhu makes the rapture and happiness born of concentration drench, steep, fill, and pervade this body, so that there is no part of his whole body that is not pervaded by the rapture and happiness born of concentration. This is the second development of noble five-factored right concentration.
    (3) “Again, with the fading away as well of rapture, a bhikkhu dwells equanimous and, mindful and clearly comprehending, he experiences pleasure with the body; he enters and dwells in the third jhāna of which the noble ones declare: ‘He is equanimous, mindful, one who dwells happily.’ He makes the happiness divested of rapture drench, steep, fill, and pervade this body, so that there is no part of his whole body that is not pervaded by the happiness divested of rapture. Just as, in a pond of blue or red or white lotuses, some lotuses that are born and grow in the water might thrive immersed in the water without rising out of it, and cool water would drench, steep, fill, and pervade them to their tips and their roots, so that there would be no part of those lotuses that would not be pervaded by cool water; so too, the bhikkhu makes the happiness divested of rapture drench, steep, fill, and pervade this body, so that there is no part of his whole body that is not pervaded by the happiness divested of rapture. This is the third development of noble five-factored right concentration.
    (4) “Again, with the abandoning of pleasure [27] and pain, and with the previous passing away of joy and dejection, a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the fourth jhāna, neither painful nor pleasant, which has purification of mindfulness by equanimity. He sits pervading this body with a pure bright mind, so that there is no part of his whole body that is not pervaded by the pure bright mind. Just as a man might be sitting covered from the head down with a white cloth, so that there would be no part of his whole body that is not pervaded by the white cloth; so too, the bhikkhu sits pervading this body with a pure bright mind, so that there is no part of his whole body that is not pervaded by the pure bright mind. This is the fourth development of noble five-factored right concentration.
    (5) “Again, a bhikkhu has grasped well the object of reviewing, attended to it well, sustained it well, and penetrated it well with wisdom. Just as one person might look upon another—as one standing might look upon one sitting down, or one sitting down might look upon one lying down—so too, a bhikkhu has grasped well the object of reviewing, attended to it well, sustained it well, and penetrated it well with wisdom. This is the fifth development of noble five-factored right concentration.
    “When, bhikkhus, noble five-factored right concentration has been developed and cultivated in this way, then, there being a suitable basis, he is capable of realizing any state realizable by direct knowledge toward which he might incline his mind.
    “Suppose a water jug full of water has been set out on a stand, the jug being full of water right up to the brim so that crows could drink from it. If a strong man would tip it in any direction, would water come out?”
    “Yes, [28] bhante.”
    “So too, bhikkhus, when noble five-factored right concentration has been developed and cultivated in this way, then, there being a suitable basis, he is capable of realizing any state realizable by direct knowledge toward which he might incline his mind.
    “Suppose on level ground there was a four-sided pond, contained by an embankment, full of water right up to the brim so that crows could drink from it. If a strong man were to remove the embankment on any side, would water come out?”
    “Yes, bhante.”
    “So too, bhikkhus, when noble five-factored right concentration has been developed and cultivated in this way, then, there being a suitable basis, he is capable of realizing any state realizable by direct knowledge toward which he might incline his mind.
    “Suppose on even ground at a crossroads a chariot was standing harnessed to thoroughbreds, with a goad ready at hand, so that a skillful trainer, the charioteer, could mount it, and taking the reins in his left hand and the goad in his right, might drive out and return wherever and whenever he likes. So too, bhikkhus, when noble five-factored right concentration has been developed and cultivated in this way, then, there being a suitable basis, he is capable of realizing any state realizable by direct knowledge toward which he might incline his mind.
    “If he wishes: ‘May I wield the various kinds of psychic potency: [29] having been one, may I become many … [here and below as in 5:23] … may I exercise mastery with the body as far as the brahmā world,’ he is capable of realizing it, there being a suitable basis.
    “If he wishes: ‘May I, with the divine ear element, which is purified and surpasses the human, hear both kinds of sounds, the divine and human, those that are far as well as near,’ he is capable of realizing it, there being a suitable basis.
    “If he wishes: ‘May I understand the minds of other beings and persons, having encompassed them with my own mind. May I understand ... an unliberated mind as unliberated,’ he is capable of realizing it, there being a suitable basis.
    “If he wishes: ‘May I recollect my manifold past abodes … with their aspects and details,’ he is capable of realizing it, there being a suitable basis.
    “If he wishes: ‘May I, with the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, see beings passing away and being reborn … and understand how beings fare on in accordance with their kamma,’ he is capable of realizing it, there being a suitable basis.
    “If he wishes: ‘May I, with the destruction of the taints, in this very life realize for myself with direct knowledge the taintless liberation of mind, liberation by wisdom; and having entered upon it, may I dwell in it,’ he is capable of realizing it, there being a suitable basis.”

29 (9) Walking Meditation 
“Bhikkhus, there are these five benefits of walking meditation. What five? [30] One becomes capable of journeys; one becomes capable of striving; one becomes healthy; what one has eaten, drunk, consumed, and tasted is properly digested; the concentration attained through walking meditation is long lasting. These are the five benefits of walking meditation.”

30 (10) Nāgita
Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was wandering on tour among the Kosalans together with a large Saṅgha of bhikkhus when he reached the Kosalan brahmin village named Icchānaṅgala. There the Blessed One dwelled in the Icchānaṅgala woodland thicket. The brahmin householders of Icchānaṅgala heard: “It is said that the ascetic Gotama, the son of the Sakyans who went forth from a Sakyan family, has arrived at Icchānaṅgala and is now dwelling in the Icchānaṅgala woodland thicket. Now a good report about that Master Gotama has circulated thus: ‘That Blessed One is an arahant, perfectly enlightened, accomplished in true knowledge and conduct, fortunate, knower of the world, unsurpassed leader of persons to be tamed, teacher of devas and humans, the Enlightened One, the Blessed One. Having realized by his own direct knowledge this world with its devas, Māra, and Brahmā, this population with its ascetics and brahmins, its devas and humans, he makes it known to others. He teaches a Dhamma that is good in the beginning, good in the middle, and good in the end, with the right meaning and phrasing; he reveals a spiritual life that is perfectly complete and pure.’ Now it is good to see such arahants.”
    Then, when the night had passed, the brahmin householders of Icchānaṅgala took abundant food of various kinds and went to the Icchānaṅgala woodland thicket. They stood outside the entrance making an uproar and a racket. [31] Now on that occasion the Venerable Nāgita was the Blessed One’s attendant. The Blessed One addressed the Venerable Nāgita: “Who is making such an uproar and a racket, Nāgita? One would think it was fishermen at a haul of fish.”
    “Bhante, these are the brahmin householders of Icchānaṅgala who have brought abundant food of various kinds. They are standing outside the entrance, [wishing to offer it] to the Blessed One and the Saṅgha of bhikkhus.”
    “Let me never come upon fame, Nāgita, and may fame never catch up with me. One who does not gain at will, without trouble or difficulty, this bliss of renunciation, bliss of solitude, bliss of peace, bliss of enlightenment that I gain at will, without trouble or difficulty, might accept that vile pleasure, that slothful pleasure, the pleasure of gain, honor, and praise.”
    “Let the Blessed One now consent, bhante, let the Fortunate One consent. This is now the time for the Blessed One to consent. Wherever the Blessed One will go now, the brahmin householders of town and countryside will incline in the same direction. Just as, when thick drops of rain are pouring down, the water flows down along the slope, so too, wherever the Blessed One will go now, the brahmin householders of town and country will incline in the same direction. For what reason? Because of the Blessed One’s virtuous behavior and wisdom.”
    “Let me never come upon fame, Nāgita, and may fame never catch up with me. One who does not gain at will, without trouble or difficulty, this bliss of renunciation … might accept that vile pleasure, that slothful pleasure, the pleasure of gain, honor, and praise. [32]
    (1) “Nāgita, what is eaten, drunk, consumed, and tasted winds up as feces and urine: this is its outcome. (2) From the change and alteration of things that are dear arise sorrow, lamentation, pain, dejection, and anguish: this is its outcome. (3) For one devoted to practicing meditation on the mark of unattractiveness, revulsion toward the mark of the beautiful becomes established: this is its outcome. (4) For one who dwells contemplating impermanence in the six bases for contact, revulsion toward contact becomes established: this is its outcome. (5) For one who dwells contemplating rise and fall in the five aggregates subject to clinging, revulsion toward clinging becomes established: this is its outcome.”
 

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