Foundations of Dharmakīrti's Philosophy - Table of Contents


496 pages, 6 x 9 inches


ISBN 9780861711840

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A Note on the Sanskrit and Tibetan Translations            

A Question of Method: A Point of Departure        
Some Suggestions for the Reader


1 Pramāṇa Theory: Dharmakīrti’s Conceptual Context         

1.1 The Process of Knowing and Its Instrument      

Two Ubiquitous Instruments: Perception and Inference           

Shared Notions Concerning Perceptual Awareness         

Shared Notions Concerning Inference      

The Basic Structure of Inference   

The Evidence-Predicate Relation and Its Exemplification

The Evidence-Subject Relation       

A Restatement          

1.2 Prameya: The “Real”        

The Simplicity of the Real and a Fundamental Difference

1.3 Purpose as Context          

1.4 Points of Divergence: The Action and Agent       

1.5 Summary


2 Dharmakīrti’s Method and Ontology

2.1 The Scale of Analysis: Dharmakīrti’s Method    

External Realism as a Level of Analysis     

Divergent Interpretations of External Realism    

2.2 Dharmakīrti’s Ontology  

The Two Prameyas—The Two Realities    

2.3 More on Particulars

The Perceptible as Ultimately Real

The Ultimately Real as Inexpressible and Momentary

Do Particulars Have Spatial Extension?

2.4 Universals            

Summary of Dharmakīrti’s Apoha-Theory

Concerning Sameness of Effect      

Are Universals Permanent?            

Three Ways of Construing Apoha  


3 Svabhāvapratibandha: The Basis of Inference

3.1 Relation through Svabhāva: Beyond “Co-Presence”        

The Two Senses of Svabhāva         

Svabhāva as “Property”      

Svabhāva as “Nature”         

Nature-svabhāva and the Causal Complex           

The Subject (dharmin) and Svabhāva as “Nature”         

3.2 The Production-mode of the Svabhāvapratibandha       

Some Issues in the Application of the Production-mode

Concerning Necessity          

The Determination of the Production-mode        

3.3 On the Relationship between Property and Nature         

Some Heuristic Terms         

The Subordination of Property to Nature

3.4 Svabhāva-evidence and the Identity-mode         

A Few Problems       


4 Instrumentality: Justifying the Sources of Knowledge       

4.1 Prāmāṇya as “Instrumentality”  

Purpose and Instrumentality

The Role of Scripture           

A Seeming Circularity          

Scriptural Inference and Dharmakırti’s

Rejection of Credibility

Axiological Concerns: Mutual Restraint of Path and Goal

4.2 Dharmakırti on Instrumentality: The Earliest Commentarial Account 

Some Basic Definitions        

“Telic Function” (arthakriyā)         

Instrumentality (prāmāṇya) in Terms of Two Effects    

Instrumentality in Terms of the Mediated Effect

Instrumentality in Terms of the Unmediated Effect       

The Two Effects and the Two Senses of Arthakriyā        

The Primacy of Puruṣārtha

Instrumentality in Terms of Human Aims: Some Problems and Solutions       

A Disparity in Time  

Obstructed Action    

Perception and Confirmation         

Perception as Motivator (pravartaka): The Question of Novelty           

Inference, Error, and Trustworthiness      

Ultimate and Conventional Pramāṇa        


Nature, Perception, and Refinement         

Appendix of Translations

A Note on the Translations

  1. PVSV ad PV1.34–37
  2. PVSV ad PV1.68–75
  3. PVSV ad PV1.137–142
  4. PVSV ad PV1.214–223
  5. PV2.1–6 with Selections from PVP and PVT
  6. PV3.1–10 with Selections from PVP and PVT
  7. PV3.194–224 with Selections from PVP and PVT
  8. Instrumentality in the Hetubindu (HB: 2*.13–3*.16)